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White Papers

MÄK White Papers address modeling and simulation topics that span technology areas and product lines.

Terrain Strategies in VR-Vantage and VR-Forces

MÄK has long preached the benefits of the terrain agility features of VR-Vantage, its 3D/2D visualization application, and VR-Forces, its computer generated forces application. Terrain agility refers to these applications’ ability to import, simulate upon, and display many types of terrain data, rather than being restricted to a single prescribed format. For MÄK it means that we can meet the needs of a wide variety of customers either out-of-the-box or with some assistance. For our customers, it means that we do not require them to convert their terrain data into a specific format to use our applications. They can use the terrain data that they already have. In this paper we describe our strategies for terrain agility. (For simplicity, when we refer to VR-Vantage support for a feature, it implies VR-Forces front-end support as well. The VR-Forces back-end is also terrain-agile and supports most of the strategies described for the front-end as well as some simulation-specific features.)

Enhance Command & Staff Training and Wargaming through Simulation

Defense budgets are tight, live training opportunities are limited, and large exercises cannot be run on a regular basis due to cost and complexity. How can military forces be optimally trained to maintain a high level of readiness to support the multiple missions they are expected to perform? This paper explores the role of simulation in wargaming and training to help the command staff develop planning and decision-making skills. We examine the challenges of training modern militaries, the current landscape and requirements of military training, the importance of simulation in training environments, and the capability gaps associated with today’s large-scale simulation exercises. We then present VT MÄK’s Command and Staff Training system (MÄK CST) as the solution to meet the challenges and fill the gaps that exist in today’s military training.

HLA Evolved – The Latest Version of the High Level Architecture

HLA Evolved is the working name for the latest update to the HLA Standard. HLA is an official family ofIEEE standards given the name IEEE 1516.2000. HLA Evolved will be named IEEE 1516-2010 when itis officially published in 2010. This FAQ answers the big questions about the latest networking standard – what is HLA Evolved and how can it help you.

Advanced AI Applied to Human Character Simulation for ISR Training

This paper details how the Marines, along with parts of the Air Force, are using human simulation with advanced AI to present tactically significant ISR video feeds to trainees. Both systems rely on the ability to represent complex scenarios with large numbers of human characters and to dynamically control the action to ensure the scenarios support specific training objectives.

VR-TheWorld - The World at Your Fingertips

VR-TheWorld Server is a simple, yet powerful, web-based Streaming Terrain Server, developed in conjunction with our technology partner, Pelican Mapping. Delivered with a global base map, you can also easily populate it with your own custom source data through a web-based interface.

HLA Federation Performance: What Really Matters?

HLA Federation developers often struggle to achieve their performance goals and must tweak theirchosen RTI to meet those needs. This paper tries to answer the question of “What really matters” when trying to optimize the performance ofan HLA federation.

Automated HLA Federation Interoperability Testing Tools

This paper describes a phased research program to create a set of automated HLA interoperability testing tools designed to simplify and speed up the process.

B-HAVE - Brains for Human Activities in Virtual Environments

B-HAVE (Brains for Human Activities in Virtual Environments) is a plug-in for VR-Forces. Powered by Autodesk Kynapse, B-HAVE uses advanced Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology to provide more complex and realistic behaviors and background traffic within MÄK’s VR-Forces simulation environment. Using B-HAVE, VR-Forces entities can analyze terrain topology, intelligently navigate through complex urban environments, automatically plan and follow paths through 3D building interiors, dynamically avoid collisions with obstacles or other entities, and flee from threats. B-HAVE allows VR-Forces users to create complex Pattern of Life (POL) modeling, where streams of people and vehicles follow context-sensitive patterns. These patterns add realistic background traffic, giving depth to simulations.

Rationale and Design of the MÄK Real-Time RTI

In addition to addressing the rationale and design, this paper will discuss some of the implementation, operation, and performance issues and point out areas of future work.

Implementation of DDM in the MÄK High Performance RTI

This paper describes the distributed region approach and its implementation in the MÄK High Performance RTI using multicast groups.

RTI Interoperability Issues – API Standards, Wire Standards, and RTI Bridges

We will use our perspective as a developer of federates that need to support multiple RTI implementations, as an RTI developer, and as an RTI-bridge developer to describe our experiences and opinions regarding these techniques.

Supporting Modeling and Simulation Interoperability Standards within ESRI ArcGIS

In this paper, we discuss requirements and approaches for integrating DIS, HLA, and TENA into ArcGIS-based systems, to allow simulated entities to be rapidly displayed and manipulated.

VR-InTerra VT MÄK's Terrain Agility Solution

Learn how MÄK can help you embed the Terrain Agility functionality of MÄK products into your application. Get detailed information on Terrain Agility and how it can help your project solve the “Terrain Problem”.

Building Hawaii - MÄK's Streaming Terrain Database

MÄK’s Hawaii terrain was built to demonstrate how themany terrain techniques supported by MÄK’s VR-Vantage, VR-Forces, and VRTheWorldServer can be combined to cost-effectively create a correlated, seamless,global 3D environment - with just the right amount of fidelity in each area for the tasks at hand.

Solving the FOM-Independence Problem

One of the key concerns facing developers of HLA simulation applications, is that they need to be able to reuse federates in different federation executions, each with its own way of representing data in a FOM. This paper presents and contrasts two predominant methods that help to solve this FOM-independence problem.

Interfacing a Communications Effect Model to Provide Accurate Modeling of Communications in Computer

This paper examines and analyzes the impact of using a high fidelity communication model versus the limitations of simplified communication models in existing synthetic environments.

Implementing a DIS-like Federation within HLA

This paper discusses some of the issues involved in implementing a DIS-like federation within HLA. The process entails defining a Federation Object Model for the federation, developing software that implements the protocol described by the FOM, and modifying simulator code to use this software in order to interact with the other federates.

Retrieval of Hidden Data -- the Flip Side of Decluttering

In this paper we develop several techniques providing efficient access to detailed information, and timely triggers to help the user know when, where, and how to access this information.

Tools for the Creation of Semantic Information for Modeling and Simulation ICCRTS 07

This paper will discuss current work MÄK is doing for the US Army Soldier System Center to generate semantic terrain information for the Infantry WarriorSimulation (IWARS), a constructive simulation being developed for analysis of infantry tactics and equipment. Geoprocessing models are being developed in C/JMTK to generate mobility, cover, and concealment features for use inplanning and movement behaviors.

Transitioning Research Concepts to the Command and Control Community Quickly 2006 Command and Control R&T Symposium 06

We present a business model providing an extremely fast method of transferring new research to the command and control community. As any software developer or user knows, there is a vast gulf between research beta prototypes, and commercial quality software. By shortening the time between concept and commercialization, command and control programs increase their technological advantage.