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Simulation Use Cases

MÄK’s VR-Forces framework provides a powerful and flexible environment for generating and running urban, battlefield, and airspace scenarios. Our expertise in distributed simulation means we can train your staff in all aspects of simulation design and development from basic interoperability concepts, to system design and architecture, to scenario development. Take a look at a few simulation use cases MÄK has helped create.

Simulation Use Cases

Take advantage of our ability to simulate your world. MÄK’s off-the-shelf simulation tools can help you develop custom solutions.

Command and Staff Trainers

Command & Staff Training

What's at stake?

Your unit is tasked with training a set of command and control tactics, techniques and procedures. You need to mock-up a command center with real C2 equipment and stimulate those systems with intel and surveillance from a contextually rich force-on-force simulation environment. You need to create scenarios that challenge and inform; that provide mission commanders with decision making opportunities. You need to provide an environment where the entire battle staff can learn to visualize the battle-space and make tactical decisions; in a time constrained and information rich environment. And, you need to do all this, on a “do more, without more” budget.

Your challenge is to accurately replicate the operational decision-making environment, to create a realistic, yet easy to use “experiential learning” environment in the most cost effective way. VT MÄK provides infrastructure and training tools to build effective Command & Staff Training.

MÄK can help.

VT MÄK can help you build this training system:

  • Low Overhead Scenario Generation – MÄK’s Battle Command and VR-Forces CGF provide easy to setup and use scenario generation
  • MSEL Event Editors - The force-on-force battle simulation is only part of the training. MÄK uses a Master Scenario Events List (MSEL) to layout the operational context surrounding the training missions. This innovative approach enables training developers and instructors to expand and enhance the decision making opportunities to include political and cultural events, intel reports and logistical effects.
  • Common Operational Picture – MÄK’s VR-Vantage provides tactical map displays for blue force tracking, 1st person views from any of the operational units, and exaggerated reality views for a birds eye view of the battle field.
  • Training System Components – MÄK can help you round out your training system with custom built Role Player Stations, Instructor Operator Stations, and After Action Review Stations.
MÄK can provide your training project with the technology and talent you need to develop low-overhead Command & Staff Training systems.

Scenario Generation

Scenario Generators  

What's at stake?

Your job is to place a trainee or analyst in a realistic virtual environment in which they can train or experiment. It could be a hardware simulator, a battle lab, or even the actual equipment, configured for simulated input. Then you need to stimulate that environment with realistic events for the trainee to respond to. The stimulation usually comes from a scenario generator, also known as a threat generator. A scenario generator typically simulates the opposing force entities and complementary friendly force entities that the trainees need to interact with.


A scenario generator should allow training staff to quickly and easily design and develop scenarios that place trainees in a realistic situation. The application should use the proper terminology and concepts for the trainees’ knowledge domain. It should be flexible enough to handle the entire spectrum of simulation needs. The entities simulated by the scenario generator should be able to operate with enough autonomy that once the simulation starts they do not need constant attention by an instructor / operator, but could be managed dynamically if necessary.

In addition to its basic capabilities, a scenario generator needs to be able to communicate with the simulator and other exercise participants using standard simulation protocols. It needs to be able to load the terrain databases and entity models that you need without forcing you to use some narrowly defined or proprietary set of formats. Finally, a scenario generator needs to work well with the visualization and data logging tools that are often used in simulation settings.

MÄK can help.

MÄK will work with you to so that you have the Scenario Generator that you need - a powerful and flexible simulation component for generating and executing battlefield scenarios. MÄK will work with you to customize it to meet the particular needs of your simulation domain. For example, higher fidelity models for a particular platform can be added, new tasks can be implemented, or the graphical user interface can be customized to create the correct level or realism. Features include:

  • Scenario development – Staff can rapidly create and modify scenarios. Entities can be controlled directly as the scenario runs. Core Technology: VR-Forces
  • Situational Awareness – The visualization system includes a 2D tactical map display, a realistic 3D view, and an eXaggerated Reality (XR) 3D view. All views support scenario creation and mission planning. The 3D view provides situational awareness and an immersive experience. The 2D and XR views provide the big picture battlefield-level view and allows the instructor to monitor overall performance during the exercise. To further the instructor’s understanding of the exercise, the displays include tactical graphics such as points and roads, entity effects such as trajectory histories and attacker-target lines, and entity details such as name, heading, speed. Core technology: VR-Vantage.
  • Network modeling – The lab can simulate communications networks and the difficulties of real-world communications. Core technologies: Qualnet eXata and AGI SMART.
  • Correlated Terrain – VT MÄK’s approach to terrain, terrain agility, ensures that you can use the terrain formats you need, when you need them. We can also help you develop custom terrains and can integrate them with correlated terrain solutions to ensure interoperability with other exercise participants. Core technologies: VR-TheWorld Server, VR-inTerra.
  • Sensor modeling – The visualization component can model visuals through different sensor spectrums, such as infrared and night vision. Core technology: JRM SensorFX.
  • Open Standards Compliance – VR-Forces supports the High Level Architecture (HLA), Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS).

Scenario Content Creation

Simulation Content Creation

What's at stake?

You need something to help you create and run scenario-based simulations; you want a graphical user interface that makes it easy to create, run, and modify scenarios and a set of high quality entity models, and terrain agility features that allow you to use a wide variety of available terrain data. However, no single application can be all things to all people, and while it is easy enough to add new content, such as new models and terrains, you still have to create that content.

MÄK can help.

VT MÄK’s simulation content creation services can help with your virtual prototyping.

Scenario Development

Do I need to load-balance? How do I write plans for lots of entities? Why don’t the entities do what I want them to do? Is this a realistic scenario? Our VR-Forces and DI-Guy experts can help you shorten the learning curve and get a jump on your scenario development. They know all the tips, tricks, and gotchas.

Behavior Modeling

VR-Forces entities have some basic built-in behaviors, such as obstacle avoidance. The B-HAVE Module adds additional intelligence to movement behaviors, particularly for life forms. If you need more complex behaviors, either directly in VR-Forces, by modifying B-HAVE, or directly in Kynapse for Simulation, we can help.

Dynamics Modeling

VR-Forces models entity movement at a level that is sufficient for general purpose simulations. If your simulation requires higher fidelity models we can create them to your specifications or consult with you on the best approaches to take to develop them and fully integrate them with VR-Forces. We can also help you ensure that your own simulators operate at the expected level of fidelity. For example, we have used RotorLib and FixedWingLib from RT Dynamics to implement high-fidelity trainers.

Sensor Modeling

VR-Forces uses a fairly simplistic sensor model based largely on distance and line-of-sight. It does not take into account variables such as the strength of the sensor or material characteristics of objects being sensed. If you need more complex sensor models, we can develop them for you.

3D Graphics Modeling

VR-Forces and VR-Vantage come with a rich set of military vehicles, civilian models, and environmental objects (buildings, street lights, signage, and other cultural objects). However, your simulations may require models specific to a particular military organization or civilian domain. We can provide the 3D models that you require to ensure the realism of your simulations. We can provide vehicle models, DI-Guy characters and animations, and stationary objects such as buildings.

Terrain Database Generation

MÄK can help you build the terrain database that meets your project’s needs. We can help you optimize your terrain to maximize performance in both visual and simulation applications. Our terrain database generation team also has expertise developing terrains that take full advantage of B-HAVE functionality using Artificial Intelligence PathData. We can assist you in developing everything from highly detailed building interiors to full world coverage and even help implement streaming terrain solutions.

High Fidelity Modeling

High Fidelity Modeling

MÄK can help.

MÄK works with our customers to develop high fidelity models and modeling environments for many different domains. These include increasing the fidelity of VR-Forces dynamics models using physics-based modeling approaches and developing realistic sensor modeling. We have also worked on improved terrain reasoning models.

Current research is focused on entity-based, large scale, high-fidelity simulation capabilities using a cloud computing environment. We want to increase entity counts without sacrificing the model fidelity. We are also extending our communications effects capabilities to the cyber warfare domain, developing models that show the effects of offensive and defensive cyber operations on the battlefield. Let MÄK help you build and integrate high fidelity models into your simulation environment.

Human Factors Engineering & Behavior Representation

Human Factors Engineering & Behavior Representation

MÄK can help.

MÄK has a long history of applied research and development in human behaviors for simulation. VR-Forces has been used with many cognitive modeling and expert systems, including SOAR and ACT-R, to provide realistic automated threats and teammates for virtual and constructive simulation environments. In a research project for PEO STRI, we have developed a behavior representation system based on the Subsumption Architecture work from the robotics world, which has allowed us to build behaviors more rapidly than before.

We are using some of the best artificial intelligence work to come out of the game world for human behaviors, including the Kynapse based B-HAVE plug-in for VR-Forces. We are also researching some of the very latest gaming AI techniques, such as behavior trees, to increase the realism of simulated players. MÄK will continue to work with the human behavior community to develop and incorporate new representations and behavior systems, providing increased realism and decision making capabilities to our simulated entities.